Basic Biology

Parts That We All Have

The sexual and reproductive parts of both females and males. In females, the genitals include the vulva, clitoris, vagina, and internal organs such as the uterus. In males, the genitals include the penis, testicles, scrotum, and internal organs such as the prostate gland.

The tips of both males’ and females’ chests that contain many nerve endings. They can be very sensitive to touch, and stimulation can cause the nipples to become erect. When a woman breastfeeds, milk comes out of the nipples.

The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In males, semen also travels through the urethra to the outside of the body.

Is where urine comes out of the body. In females the urethral opening is located on the vulva, below the clitoris and above the vaginal opening. In males the urethral opening is located at the tip of the penis.

The part of the body at the top of the legs where the anus is located. It is more commonly known as the butt or ass.

ANUS: The opening from the intestine to the outside of the body. This is where feces comes out.

Body Fluids

VAGINAL FLUID: the mucus-like fluid that lubricates the vagina when a woman is sexually excited.

SEMEN: the fluid that comes out of the penis when a male ejaculates. It’s made up of sperm and fluids that help the sperm move and provide them with nutrients.

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Parts That Males Have

The external male sex organ that is located between a male’s legs. The opening of the penis (urethra) is where urine (pee/piss) and semen (cum) come out. The penis can get erect (hard).

The two oval-shaped sex organs located just below the penis. The testicles produce sperm and male hormones. For most males, one testicle is bigger than the other and one hangs lower than the other.

The pouch of skin that holds the testicles. The scrotum has the ability to adjust the temperature of the testicles by moving them closer to or farther away from the body. This is necessary in order to make healthy sperm.

Penis Functions

ERECTION: When blood rushes into the penis causing it to swell and making it larger and harder. Males can get erections for many different reasons including sexual stimulation. Although an erection is sometimes called a boner, there is no bone in the penis.

EJACULATION: Is the release of semen through the penis. Ejaculation often happens at the same time as orgasm, the peak of sexual excitement.

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Parts That Females Have

The glands on the female’s chest which can produce milk after a woman gives birth. Women’s breasts are unique in size and shape and can change over the course of their lives. For some women, one breast can be larger than the other.

The fleshy pad of skin that protects the pubic bone in women. This is where most of a woman’s pubic hair grows.

The external parts of female genitals. These include the mons pubis, labia majora (outer lips), labia minora (inner lips), clitoris, urethral opening, and the opening to the vagina.

An external female sex organ that can be very sensitive to touch. When stimulated, the clitoris fills with blood and gets erect. The clitoris is usually located at the top point where the labia minora (inner lips) meet and is protected by the clitoral hood (a piece of skin).The main function of the clitoris is to provide sexual pleasure.

Is the hollow, tube-like opening between the uterus and the outside of the body. Most of the time, the walls of the vagina are very close together. The walls are made of muscle and are able to separate or expand when something is inserted into the vagina or when something comes out. The vagina is where a baby comes out during vaginal childbirth, where menstrual fluid comes out, where a tampon goes in during a woman’s period, and where a penis can go in during sexual intercourse.

A pear-shaped internal organ made of muscle. The uterus, sometimes called the womb, is where the fetus develops during pregnancy. The lining of the uterus is what comes out when a woman has her period.

The bottom part of the uterus which extends down into the vagina. The opening of the cervix, called the os, is where sperm swim through into the uterus. It also expands during labor to allow the baby to come out during birth.

The internal organs that store and release ovum or eggs. Women have two ovaries, which are located on either side of the uterus.

The thin tubes between the ovaries and the uterus. Once an egg is released from the ovary, it travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus. If fertilization happens, the sperm and egg usually meet in the fallopian tube.

Reproductive Cells

OVUM: These are the cells that carry the female’s genetic material. Once a woman starts getting her period, her ovaries usually release one ovum a month. Ovum are more commonly called eggs.

SPERM: Short for spermatozoa, these are the cells that carry the male’s genetic material. Males usually release millions of sperm each time they ejaculate. In order for a pregnancy to happen, one sperm cell needs to unite with one egg cell.

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